Are Food Dyes Safe for Kids?

Are-artificial-food-dyes-safe-for-kids

Each year, UBC dietetics students have a class project where they practice writing nutrition articles for the public. This year, I asked students Mei Ho and May Hasegawa to research are food dyes safe for kids. Here's what they found ~ Kristen

When you are shopping for snacks for your child, do the bright colours make you think twice about about adding it to your basket? Many foods we come across in our everyday lives have colour added in order to make it appear more appetizing. It is very common to see vivid colours in foods and beverages marketed towards children, such as candies, desserts and chewing gums. Foods can be coloured by natural food dyes like caramel colouring, or artificial food dyes, which are colours made from petroleum1. Today we will be looking at food dyes in the context of artificial food dyes, which have been used more commonly in foods in recent years.

Are Artificial Food Dyes Safe for Kids?

As early as the 80’s, researchers began to study the effects of artificial food dyes on children’s health. The results of their studies have been controversial, and has stirred concern amongst consumers. Some have suggested a possible link between artificial food dyes and hypersensitivity in children3. Others have researched possible risks of organ damage, cancer, birth defects and allergic reactions1. While no study findings have been conclusive, countries in Europe such as the U.K. have banned artificial food dyes altogether for safety measures1.

What Are the Safety Regulations of Food Dyes in Canada?

Regulations in North America state that there is not enough scientific evidence to say artificial food dyes cause negative effects on children’s health3. Canada permits the use of food dyes in everyday foods from bread, butter, milk to cheese. All food dyes must first be approved by our federal regulatory body, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). At this time, Canada has approved ten dye colours for use in food and beverages.

However, it has not been ruled out that food dyes may affect children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and behavioural problems differently3. Researchers agree that more research on artificial food dyes is required.

Food Dyes Across the Globe

In 2009, the U.K. imposed strict regulations to remove certain food dyes from foods and beverages. This prompts us to think, why hasn’t North America followed along? It is interesting to note the different approaches used by North America and the U.K. when it comes to ensuring public safety through foods.4

  • North America: tries to find the strongest evidence available before implementing new regulations.
  • UK: uses a more precautionary approach, meaning that it will take action to protect the public even if the evidence is not entirely conclusive.

Moving Forward: What Can You Do?

With all this information, it can be confusing to decide whether you want your children to be consuming artificial food dyes. It may first be helpful to understand how to identify whether something contains artificial food dyes. By law, companies are required to list the name of the dye on the ingredient label. It may be tricky for shoppers to recognize the commercial names of artificial food dyes. Here are the names of 10 common artificial food dyes in Canada:5

  • Allura red
  • Brilliant blue FCF
  • Citrus Red No.2
  • Sunset yellow FCF
  • Tartrazine
  • Fast green FCF
  • Indigotine
  • Erythrosine Red
  • Amaranth Red
  • Ponceau SX

There are also ways to add colour into your cooking at home without using food dyes! Kids are drawn to bright colours, and baking at home can be more fun if your child has the chance to make their own colours. This can be done by boiling, blending, and/or pureeing vegetables or fruits for their natural colours.6

Ideas include:

  • Raspberries, pomegranate and beets - pink/purple
  • Carrots – orange
  • Turmeric powder – yellow
  • Blueberry – blue
  • Spinach – green
  • Red cabbage – purple and blue
    • For purple, boil cabbage in hot water until water is dark purple colour
    • For blue, slowly add some baking soda to purple water

Are Food Dyes Safe for Kids - May’s Opinion:

While there is not enough evidence to conclude that artificial food dyes are harmful to our body, I feel that more research is needed to fully understand their effects on our health. I like to refrain from using artificial food colouring in my own baking, and opt for more natural options like using juice from fruits or vegetables.

Are Food Dyes Safe for Kids - Mei’s Opinion:

As the research is inconclusive, it is ultimately up to the consumers to make an informed decision. New food labelling requirements in Canada will now include the commercial names of synthetic food dyes in the ingredient list, but it is questionable whether or not consumers will recognize these names or be able to associate them with food dyes.

Are Food Dyes Safe for Kids - Kristen's Opinion:

Call me conservative, but I am suspicious of foods that are highly processed. My motto is "foods closest to the way nature made them are the healthiest choice". Artificial food dyes are about as far from nature-made as you can get. So, I would recommend steering clear of artificial food dyes for day-to-day eating. But I'm also practical. Our bodies are amazingly adaptive. Eating foods with artificial dyes once in a while is likely not going to cause harm. So if your child is invited to a birthday party where they serve cake with bright green icing, let your child enjoy the cake right along with the other kiddos.

If your child has behaviour concerns, such as ADD/ ADHD, I think it's worth doing a food trial where you eliminate all food dyes and see how your child's behaviour responds. There may be no effect. Or, your child may be a member of the sub-set of kids who have a link between behaviour and food dyes.

Want more science-based nutrition tips for kids? Sign-up today for my e-newsletter.

Sources:

1Kobylewski, Sarah, et al. “Food Dyes a Rainbow of Risks”. Center for Science in the Public Interest. 2010.

2Stevenson J, Sonuga-Barke E, McCann D, et al. “The Role of Histamine Degradation Gene Polymorphisms in Moderating the Effects of Food Additives on Children's ADHD Symptoms.” American Journal of Psychiatry. 2010; 167:1108-1115.

3 “FDA panel concludes food coloring isn't associated with hyperactivity in children.” Nutrition Today. 2011; 46:104.

4Banned in Europe, Safe in the U.S. http://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/banned-europe-safe-us/

5Food Colours - Permitted Synthetic Colours in Canada and Corresponding United States and European Names.

http://www.inspection.gc.ca/food/labelling/food-labelling-for-industry/list-of-ingredients-and-allergens/food-colours/eng/1348150903240/1348150959157

68 Ways to Make Organic DIY Food Colouring. http://www.networx.com/article/8-ways-to-make-organic-diy-food-coloring

Food and Histamine: What's the Connection?

food-and-histamine

Hay fever. I have it. Do you? Did you know that what you eat could be making your hay fever worse? In my previous post I shared about oral allergy syndrome. Today I’m talking about food and histamine.

All human bodies contain histamine. And most of us, most of the time, aren’t bothered by it one bit. However, our bodies have a threshold for histamine. And when the level of histamine in our bodies goes above that threshold, we experience symptoms. They are the symptoms that us hay fever sufferers know all too well – itchy eyes, watery eyes, sneezing, runny nose, etc.

Histamine in the Body

Where do the histamines in our bodies come from? They are released as a part of the allergic response. In the case of hay fever, they are released in response to breathing in that pollen. That’s why hay fever medications are called anti-histamines. Our gut bacteria also naturally produce histamine.

A number of foods contain histamine. When we eat these foods, the histamine enters our bodies.

The trick to getting rid of the symptoms of high histamine (i.e. hay fever symptoms) is to get the level of histamine in our body back below our threshold. Trees and grasses will produce pollen for as long as they are programmed by nature to do so – there’s nothing you can do about that. Even healthy gut bacteria produce histamine so there’s nothing that you can do about that.

Which leaves you with one factor that you have the ability to change – how much histamine-containing foods you eat. Let me be clear, this isn’t like a food allergy where you need to remove 100% of histamine from food. You don’t need to avoid all of these foods. But you can reduce the amount of these foods that you eat when your hay fever is acting up.

Food and Histamine

These foods contain histamine:

  • Alcohol and non-alcohol versions of alcoholic drinks (e.g. near-beer)
  • Coffee and tea
  • Vinegar and foods made with vinegar (e.g. pickles)
  • Chocolate, cocoa, cola
  • Fermented vegetables and soy (e.g. sauerkraut, soy sauce)
  • Cheese
  • Processed meats/ charcuterie
  • Fish and shellfish – unless you cook them immediately after catching/harvesting them
  • Red beans
  • Soy beans
  • Eggplant
  • Spinach
  • Pumpkin/ squash
  • Avocado
  • Tomatoes
  • Grapes
  • Citrus fruit
  • Apricots
  • Cherries
  • Strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, cranberries
  • Pineapple
  • Many dried fruits such as dates, raisins, prunes
  • Some spices such as cinnamon, chili powder, nutmeg

Photo credit: Igor Ovsyannykov on Unsplash

Food Allergy and Hay Fever. Oral Allergy Syndrome

food-allergy-hay-fever

Yay, Spring is finally here! Full of all sorts of good things, like more daylight and cherry blossoms. But, if you’re like me, there is a downside to Spring’s arrival: hay fever. Did you know that there are foods that can make hay fever worse? There are two main ways that food allergy happens in hay fever sufferers: Oral Allergy Syndrome and histamine-containing foods. In this post I’ll share all about Oral allergy Syndrome. In my next post I’ll cover histamine foods.

Note: The advice that I’m about to share is intended for information purposes. Food allergies and sensitivities aren’t something to casually play around with. If an Allergist (allergy specialist doctor) has given you individual advice, follow their advice. I’m also happy to work one-on-one with you to create an individual plan.

In Oral Allergy Syndrome (OAS), you feel a tingling in your mouth when you eat these foods. Some people will get swelling of their lips and tongue. Some people even break out into blisters in their mouth. You will experience the reaction within minutes of eating the food – up to 30 minutes later. So, it’s an immediate reaction, localized to your mouth/throat. You may notice this sensation any time of the year. Or you may only get it during the time of year when you’re breathing in the pollen from the plants/ trees to which you are allergic.

What’s happening in your body during hay fever is that you are breathing in the pollen from the plant. Your immune system is reacting to the proteins in that pollen to stimulate the symptoms that all we hay fever suffers know well – itchy watery eyes, sneezing, runny nose, even hives and skin rash.

In OAS, the foods happen to contain proteins that are similar in shape to those pollen proteins. So your body confuses the two and reacts to the foods’ proteins. OAS is really a cross-reaction.

The good news is that it seems to be eating just the raw foods that cause OAS. When we cook food it changes the shape of the proteins and there is no more cross-reaction.

So, what foods cross-react? It depends on the plant/tree to which you are allergic.


Hay fever to birch trees, mugwort (a weed), grass, or Timothy grass? Avoid these foods (raw):

  • Apple
  • Apricot
  • Cherry
  • Kiwi
  • Melon
  • Nectarine
  • Orange
  • Peach
  • Pear
  • Plum
  • Prune
  • Watermelon
  • Beans
  • Lentils
  • Peanut
  • Peas
  • Soy
  • Rye
  • Almond
  • Chestnut
  • Hazelnut
  • Walnut
  • Caraway seed
  • Poppy seed
  • Sesame seed
  • Sunflower seed
  • Anise (fennel)
  • Asparagus
  • Cabbage
  • Carrot
  • Celery
  • Cilantro (coriander)
  • Cumin
  • Dill
  • Green pepper
  • Parsley
  • Potato
  • Tomato
  • Cucumber
  • Zucchini

Hay fever to ragweed? Avoid these foods (raw):

  • Banana
  • Cantaloupe
  • Honeydew
  • Melon
  • Peach
  • Watermelon
  • Cucumber
  • Zucchini

Note that you should only avoid the foods that cause a reaction in you. Just because a food is on the list, does not guarantee that you will have a reaction to it. If you don’t have a reaction to a food that’s on the list, lucky you! Feel free to continue eating it.

Not sure which food is causing you symptoms? Contact me to work one-on-one. Let's create an individual food allergy plan for you.

Photo credit: Chloe Ridgway on Unsplash